ARTÍCULO

Kelsen y la realidad del Estado

Tecnos, Madrid, 1997
Estudio preliminar y traducción de Juan Antonio García Amado
 

Es difícil exagerar la influencia que el pensamiento de Hans Kelsen ha ejercido sobre la teoría del Derecho contemporáneo. A Kelsen se debe no sólo la propagación del modelo concentrado de control judicial de constitucionalidad en Europa (quizá su aportación más conocida entre los no estudiosos de la teoría del Derecho), sino, fundamentalmente, un modo original de aproximarse a ese fenómeno social que es el Derecho. Aún hoy, sus planteamientos, definitivamente perfilados en la segunda edición de la Teoría pura del Derecho, de 1960, constituyen, junto con la obra de autores como Hart, Bobbio y Ross, un referente ineludible para cualquiera que decida emprender la aventura de comprender qué es el Derecho y cómo funcionan las instituciones jurídicas fundamentales.

Kelsen fue también un ilustre cultivador de la filosofía política y moral. En ¿Qué es justicia? y en Escritos sobre la democracia y el socialismo, encontramos una crítica rotunda al Derecho natural (a la posibilidad, en definitiva, de predicar de los valores una naturaleza «objetiva»), y, justamente por ello, una defensa de la democracia como desiderátum de tal posición antirrealista en materia moral. En esta traducción de Juan Antonio García Amado que nos llega ahora, nos topamos, en su estado más puro, con los presupuestos epistemológicos típicos del pensamiento kelseniano, aplicados en esta ocasión a la crítica de la teoría del Estado de Rudolf Smend. Es, pues, esta obra de Kelsen escrita en 1930 una de confrontación directa, y de ahí que para el lector resulte sumamente útil el cuidado estudio preliminar que García Amado nos ofrece. En él, de manera concisa, se exponen las tesis de Smend y los paradigmas filosóficos que informan la controversia entre éste y Kelsen.

Y es que ciertamente, y como se nos anuncia en el título, la controversia es de principio; acerca, no sólo, de cuál es la respuesta a la pregunta: «¿Qué es el Estado?», sino de cuál ha de ser la actitud del científico social que decide abordar ese interrogante.

Para alguien como Kelsen que bebe de las fuentes del positivismo lógico del Círculo de Viena, existen ciertos fenómenos sobre los que no rige la causalidad sino el principio de imputación. No es una relación de causa-efecto la que explica el hecho de que alguien emita en un contexto apropiado las palabras «yo os declaro marido y mujer» y la consecuencia de que haya un matrimonio, como sí en cambio entre el hecho de que se dé una temperatura de 100° y el agua hierva. El matrimonio, como el dinero, el Estado, y otras instituciones sociales, presupone algo así como una voluntad, intersubjetivamente asumida, de asignar efectos a ciertas acciones humanas. Salvo que mantengamos un escepticismo metafísico radical, afirmanos que si no hubiera seres humanos no habría ni matrimonios, ni Estados, ni dinero, pero sí seguiría existiendo agua que a 100° hierve. Lo cual no quiere decir que porque no podamos extender satisfactoriamente el principio de causalidad al dominio de las ciencias sociales, la existencia o realidad de tales instituciones no pueda ser predicada. El asunto es cómo abordar esa ontología de los hechos sociales y jurídicos; en nuestro caso concreto, cómo aproximarse a la «realidad» del Estado.

Para Kelsen, el Estado no es nada más (y nada menos) que un ordenamiento jurídico vigente y válido en un determinado territorio, lo cual equivale a decir: un sistema de supuestos de conducta humana normados que forman el contenido de un ordenamiento normativo. Sobre ambos rasgos –vigencia y validez– la teoría jurídica postkelseniana ha tenido mucho que decir, pero a nuestros efectos podemos dejar a un lado dichos desarrollos y controversias posteriores para insistir en que el problema de la existencia del Estado en Kelsen no es otro que el de la «positividad» del Derecho.

La crítica de Smend se centra sobre esa caracterización formalistanormativista del Estado. El Estado, nos dice Smend, es algo más que un sistema jurídico; es real en la medida en que es vida. Y esa «vitalidad estatal» acontece cuando hay realización de un valor compartido; cuando se da un sentimiento de comunidad entre las personas. Para asentar esta afirmación Smend recurre a dos instrumentos conceptuales: la noción de Litt de «círculo cerrado» y la idea de integración. De acuerdo con la primera, una pluralidad de hombres constituye un círculo cerrado en la medida en que cada uno de ellos se encuentra en una relación de «perspectiva recíproca». En función de la segunda, y recogiendo las propias palabras de Smend: «El Estado sólo es en cuanto que y en la medida en que, duraderamente integrado, se construye en y a partir de los individuos, y ese proceso duradero es en su esencia realidad socioespiritual» (pág. 76). La integración desde el Estado y para la consolidación de este mismo, se produciría en los niveles personal (identificación con figuras personales), simbólico-material (de los himnos, banderas, fiestas e historia colectiva) y funcional (formas de vida que tienden a consolidar el sentimiento de pertenencia), y tendría como instrumento fundamental a la Constitución, que ya no sería meramente la norma suprema del ordenamiento que dota de validez a las normas subsiguientemente generadas en su desarrollo tal y como postula Kelsen.

El Estado smendiano resulta ser para Kelsen una entidad supraindividual de la que se predican procesos anímico-corporales. Esta hipostatación sería incompatible con el mantenimiento de la imputación como principio rector del dominio de los hechos sociales. De suerte tal que Smend no consigue (pese a proponérselo expresamente) situarse en un terreno intermedio entre el normativismo de la Escuela de Viena y la fenomenología de Litt.

La aproximación de Smend estaría, además, plagada de contradicciones internas. Reparemos en las dimensiones de la integración. Lo que percibimos es que hay ciertas asociaciones humanas que identificamos como Estados, donde ese conocimiento mutuo entre los individuos no se da e, inversamente, grupos en los que sí predicaríamos una interacción fuerte pero que no tienen la forma de Estado. El ámbito de los Estados, apunta Kelsen, no resulta determinado por el efecto empático de la mediación social, sino que sus límites personales, territoriales y temporales se establecen a partir de un ordenamiento normativo. El sentimiento de proximidad se da con mucha mayor fuerza, a veces, entre personas que pertenecen a Estados distintos. ¿Cómo puede la teoría de Smend salvar este escollo? ¿Cómo puede explicar la ciudadanía de los que son incapaces de sostener una interrelación vital por su condición de menores de edad o enajenados mentales, si no es admitiendo que la pertenencia es un asunto jurídico-normativo y no material-simbólico? Smend afirma, nos recuerda Kelsen, que todo Estado precisa la combinación de los factores de la integración y, al mismo tiempo, caracteriza a Francia como un Estado parlamentario, es decir, donde sólo la integración de carácter funcional es puesta en práctica. La conclusión parece obvia: o bien no es verdad que la integración material-simbólica y personal es condición de posibilidad de un Estado, o bien Francia (o Gran Bretaña) no son Estados.

Otro tipo de preguntas y perplejidades que salpican el texto de Kelsen se dirigen a poner de manifiesto el carácter acientífico de la propuesta smendiana. ¿Por qué razones rechaza Smend la adopción del parlamentarismo en Alemania? ¿Qué tipo de «hechos» podrían demostrar afirmaciones de Smend como: «hay banderas nacionales que no son el símbolo de una comunidad valorativa suprema y que carecen por ello de la función de integración» (pág. 91)? Se postula la integración (o lo que es lo mismo, se niega la teoría normativa del Estado) no porque (como debería ser) sea el resultado frío de la constatación del científico social, sino por razones axiológicas: el temor al debilitamiento del Estado. Un recelo que, denuncia Kelsen, resulta informado fatalmente por el antisemitismo y el filofascismo. No de otra forma cabría entender la aseveración de Smend de que los judíos son por esencia no aptos para la integración, y su remisión a la literatura del fascismo como gran filón donde estudiar la integración estatal. Para Kelsen, en resumen, el esfuerzo de Smend es, en gran medida, un conjunto de «tautologías carentes de significado» (pág. 78), cuando no pura propaganda política favorecedora del fascismo.

Que el producto intelectual de Smend se mueva entre esas insatisfactorias alternativas, es posiblemente un efecto debido a la presuntuosidad. Si bien el estudioso de la realidad social ha de ser consciente de que aquélla desborda el lecho de Procusto del método científico, ello no quiere decir que lo que podamos avanzar como conocimiento de lo social resulte inmune a las exigencias –atemperadas– de la razón y la lógica. La teoría del Estado de Smend no pasa ese test y de ahí la incisiva censura de Kelsen.

01/12/1997

 
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