ARTÍCULO

Contra la reducción de la realidad

Siruela, Madrid
Trad. de Rafael Jackson
176 págs.
Alba, Barcelona
Trad. de Catalina Martínez Muñoz
488 págs.
 

El Diccionario abreviado del surrealismo fue publicado en 1938, catorce años después del Primer manifiesto del grupo. André Breton y Paul Eluard escribieron una buena parte de las entradas y se encargaron de la selección de las demás, textos de diversos poetas y artistas que colaboraron con el surrealismo de manera más o menos intensa: Dalí, Soupault, Desnos, Arp, Man Ray, Ernst. O que convivieron en su mismo ambiente: Tzara, Picasso, Duchamp. Además de las definiciones de términos que esperamos encontrar en cualquier diccionario, que aquí están extraídas mayoritariamente de poemas, los autores incluyen los términos fundamentales asociados al movimiento (como «objeto encontrado» o «cadáver exquisito»), los nombres de todos los creadores surrealistas relevantes junto a los pseudónimos con que se llamaban entre ellos, y 220 ilustraciones (fotos de grupo, cuadros, esculturas, dibujos y manuscritos).

 Confirmando la idea de que una mirada fuerte y novedosa no sólo modifica su disciplina hacia delante, sino que crea su tradición y concibe a sus padres, esta obra dedica un espacio a situar a sus antecesores, mostrando citas o fragmentos de autores que, gracias al surrealismo, podemos leer como presurrealistas y que ciertamente comparten los intereses o los modos de hacer de Breton y compañía: románticos como Nerval y Novalis y su interés por lo onírico; Lichtenberg y su manera de dejarlo todo fuera de lugar mediante el ingenio; Baudelaire y su experiencia de una nueva sensibilidad; Lewis Carroll y su empleo arbitrario de la lógica; Shakespeare y sus personajes (típicamente, el bufón), dotados de una apariencia de locura, colocados fuera de la realidad para que puedan, desde ahí, sostener el espejo en el que se refleja una verdad más completa.

Tal vez la principal reflexión que propicia el Diccionario sea la que atañe a ese tema del conocimiento de la realidad. El surrealismo, leemos explícitamente, es eso: un modo de conocimiento de lo real. Esto choca con la lectura que intentan imponer las escuelas estéticas autodenominadas realistas, que asumen que solamente lo que ellas retratan es la realidad y que su manera de hacerlo es la única capaz de captar, expresar o explicar lo real. Este realismo se vale de la narratividad, de la sintaxis convencional, de la figuración, de una severa restricción de lo imaginativo y de la confianza ciega en la existencia de una única verdad (lo cual da cuenta de la pobreza de su ontología) y en nuestra capacidad para conocerla (lo cual expresa su ingenuidad epistemológica). La realidad se define de un modo restrictivo, dejando al margen todo lo oscuro, lo misterioso, lo que tal vez mañana o tal vez nunca podamos explicar. Se soluciona el problema de la adecuación de los límites ignorando todo lo que queda más allá de ellos. Y, desde esta concepción restringida de la realidad, el surrealismo se situaría en otro terreno que estaría más allá de una frontera concreta, separado por un límite preciso. Se enfrentan, entonces, la realidad y la superrealidad como alternativas, como espacios entre los que no existe ninguna continuidad.

Sin embargo, el planteamiento surrealista es otro: busca penetrar en un ámbito desconocido de la realidad, no situarse más allá o más acá de ella. No es una oposición a la realidad, sino un intento de prolongarla, de asumir su extensión. No es sólo una propuesta estética distinta, sino otro modo de sistematizar la vida. Esa es, posiblemente, su principal aportación teórica: esto otro también es realidad. El surrealismo es, por lo tanto, una forma de realismo que sabe que lo imaginario forma parte de lo real.

Como crítica de la razón, el surrealismo también muestra que el realismo ha caído en la trampa de las apariencias, no sólo desde el punto de vista de las percepciones sensoriales, sino, muy especialmente, en lo que hace a las apariencias lingüísticas. Pensar el mundo a partir de categorías, fijar límites que parecen escalones (rojo/violeta/ azul), es una manera de dejar oculta la profunda y más verdadera continuidad. La célebre teoría de Breton de los vasos comunicantes, que ponen en contacto el continente y el contenido, es la postulación metafórica de esta idea (y un aggiornamento del concepto clásico de decorum). Según la teoría, la visión sesgada de la realidad, propia del realismo, se podría ampliar aproximando la percepción y la representación, cuya unidad original ha sido destruida por la cultura.

La búsqueda de esa aproximación es una búsqueda interior, que admite que la realidad es una construcción social y, por lo tanto, parcialmente subjetiva, y que lo subjetivo debe ser tenido en cuenta a la hora de explorarla. Esto se manifiesta estéticamente en el ready-made: un objeto cotidiano que asciende a la categoría de arte por el hecho de haber sido escogido por el artista. Lo real es demasiado amplio como para poder prescindir de ninguna herramienta de trabajo. Y si en la construcción de la realidad la atención se centra en la norma, en lo que se repite, aquí lo que se propone es investigar «las leyes que rigen las excepciones » (Jarry): lo irrepetible. De ahí el interés por lo que queda fuera del control de la razón cultural, como el azar o la escritura automática (versión literaria de la asociación libre psicoanalítica). «Se precisan todas las palabras para aprehender lo real», escribe Eluard. Pero se tiene conciencia de la imposibilidad final de la tarea: frente a la soberbia de los realismos, que no sólo pretenden establecer los límites del mundo, sino también ser capaces de registrarlo entero, este diccionario se postula «abreviado» desde su título, dando cuenta de que la superrealidad es demasiado extensa como para caber en un libro.

Por supuesto, dicha conciencia de la imposibilidad no implica la renuncia a emprender la tarea. La pregunta que surge entonces es si el trabajo del artista será fijar lo real, definirlo, limitarlo y reproducirlo desde un supuesto conocimiento y con unas intenciones estéticas inevitablemente conservadoras, o investigar lo real, analizarlo, ponerlo en movimiento, cuestionarlo, siempre desde una carencia cognitiva, siempre desde la inexperiencia. Porque es precisamente lo que no se sabe, lo que no se tiene, la carencia, lo que puede fundar un discurso estético imaginativo.

Muchas de estas ideas aparecen explícitamente en Autorretrato, la autobiografía del fotógrafo y pintor nor-teamericano Man Ray, que vivió en París desde 1921 y a quien el Diccionario define como «presurrealista y surrealista». Amigo de Breton y de Duchamp, Man Ray fue aceptado por el grupo surrealista y relata en sus memorias diversas anécdotas protagonizadas por miembros del mismo. En su fascinante relato aparecen personajes como Tzara, Picasso, Eluard, Dalí, Brancusi o Desnos, ilustrando con sus actividades y preocupaciones el espíritu de la época. Philippe Soupault, por ejemplo, entra en un portal al azar y le pregunta al conserje si ahí vive un tal Philippe Soupault; Robert Desnos entraba en trance en las reuniones en casa de Breton e improvisaba anagramas y largas secuencias poéticas, y en el estudio de Man Ray se quedaba dormido en un sillón en mitad de una conversación, para despertar al cabo de un rato y continuarla «como si no mediase tiempo alguno», llevando a la práctica el deseo surrealista de mostrar que no hay una línea divisoria entre el sueño y la vigilia.

Pero lo más destacable del libro son las reflexiones estéticas del autor, la exposición de su interés por ampliar el concepto de «lo natural» para que cupiera también lo imaginario, de sus «incursiones en lo desconocido», de sus esfuerzos para lograr una liberación total de la pintura de lo figurativo, de modo que ante todo quede plasmada la experiencia de pintar. Las innovaciones técnicas aparecen cuando el tema exige un enfoque distinto, aunque la intención no sea identificar el tema sino «ampliar sus fronteras».

En efecto, la disconformidad no es sólo con lo real, sino con la reducción de la realidad que opera la estética realista. Cuando Man Ray trata de reproducir la realidad con una estrategia figurativa, se siente siempre decepcionado: después de pasar un día entero fotografiando unas secuoyas gigantes, descubre que sus tomas no son capaces de hacer justicia al imponente aspecto de los árboles, ni captan las sensaciones y reflexiones que le han provocado. Y aunque esto pudiera lograrse, sería pertinente repetir la pregunta que le hizo una niña de diez años tras contemplar una naturaleza muerta y los objetos reales que la habían originado: ¿por qué quiere alguien tener dos cosas iguales?

Mariano Peyrou es poeta

02/08/2004

 
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